Exosomes originate from the vesicles of advanced endosomes (also known as multivesicular bodies). They are secreted by most cell types, and are widely distributed in serum, plasma, urine, ascites, and cell supernatants. Exosomes contain various protein, RNAs and lipids that can regulate important cellular physiological activities. Having been reported in immune response, apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammatory response and coagulation articles, exosomes have become the potential target for the treatment of various diseases, early diagnosis markers and targeted drug vectors.
1. Patented exosome extraction technology and unique microRNA library construction methods to provide miRNA sequencing services
2. Three exosome/vesicle databases to ensure complete annotation information, and provide evidence for further studies
3. Clinical data analysis of tumor research making the results more comprehensive
4. Four latest databases for target gene prediction ensure more accurate results
General Functions of miRNAs in Exosomes
Small RNA is a classification of RNA molecules such as miRNA, piRNA, tsRNA and snoRNA. Small RNA is involved in gene expression and regulation, RNA processing and slicing, protein translation, genetic “invasion” inhibition, gametogenesis and other important biological processes, thus being an indispensable regulatory factor in life activities. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the major part of small RNA and have been found to be closely related to cancer, cardiovascular disease and immune system diseases. For example, miRNAs can be transported by exosomes to other cellular tissues to create a suitable microenvironment for cancer cell metastasis. Also, exosome miRNAs can be used as biomarkers for diseases, and are widely used in disease diagnosis, personalized treatment and prognosis. High-throughput sequencing technology can obtain sequence information of all small RNAs from the sample in a single sequencing process, so as to analyze the expression levels of small RNAs with different disease states, sample sources and processing conditions, and to accurately compare the slight differences. In this way, it offers biological significance for the future study of small RNAs.
|Basic Analysis||Advanced Analysis|
|Data Quality Assessment and QC||Prediction of miRNA Target Genes (non-model species or new miRNAs)|
|Sequence Alignment||Differential Expression Analysis of New miRNAs|
|Whole-genome Reads Distribution Map||miRNA Disease Database Annotations (human only)|
|ncRNA Classification and Annotation||Exosomal Database Annotation (only for human/rat/mouse)|
|Known miRNA Analysis||tsRNA Analysis|
|Known miRNA Expression||tsRNA Source analysis|
|Total Expression Analysis of Known miRNAs||tsRNA Expression analysis|
|Known miRNA Length||tsRNA Difference analysis|
|Known miRNA Base Preference Analysis||tsRNA Expression Cluster analysis|
|Genome Repeat Region Annotation|
|Functional Component Annotation|
|New miRNA Prediction|
|Common and Unique Sequence Analysis|
|Differential Analysis of miRNA Expression Between Samples|
|miRNA Family Analysis (model species only)|
|miRNA Conservation Analysis (model species only)|
|miRNA Base Editing Analysis|
|Correlation Analysis between Samples|
|Analysis of Principal Components between Samples|
|Prediction on Differentially Expressed miRNA Target Genes (known miRNAs, limited to human/rat/mouse)|
|Basic Information of miRNA|
|Introduction to Target Gene Prediction Methods|
|Target Gene Prediction Results|
|Candidate Target Genes|
|KEGG Pathway Enrichment Analysis of Differentially Expressed miRNA Target Genes|
|GO Pathway Enrichment Analysis of Differentially Expressed miRNA Target Genes|
1.1. Can you do exosome Small RNA sequencing without a reference genome, or if miRBase has no miRNA sequence for the reference species?
Species without a reference genome can be used as a transcript-free transcript transcript, using a transcript as a reference sequence for Small RNA sequencing analysis, or using a genome of a related species as a reference; miRBase does not include miRNA sequences of the species to be studied, available The miRNA sequences of closely related species are annotated.
2. What are the precautions for exosomes?
Samples prior to separation of exosomes should not be added with any RNA protectant (eg TRIzol, RNAlater). After the blood sample is collected, the whole blood is gently dripped into a clean EP tube or a centrifuge tube; after standing at 4 ° C for 3 to 4 hours, blood clots are precipitated; Plasma samples should not be anticoagulated with heparin. Whole blood should be mixed with a blood collection needle and an EDTA anticoagulation tube; it should be allowed to stand at 4 ° C for 3 to 4 hours, and then centrifuged to take the supernatant. Cell supernatant samples are treated with serum to remove exosomes during cell culture and to avoid mycoplasma contamination. For more detailed sample collection procedures, please refer to the Collection Process.